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Category — Bond Types
By Konstantin Vasilev Member of the Board of Directors of Cbonds, Ph.D. in Economics
Updated October 23, 2023

What Is a Bond?

A bond is a debt security that represents a loan made by an investor to a bond issuer. In simpler terms, when you buy bonds, you are essentially lending money to the entity that issued the bond, which can be a government, municipality, or corporation. Bonds are typically used by these entities as a means to raise money for various purposes, such as financing projects, funding operations, or managing debt.

Bonds come in various types, including government bonds, municipal bonds, and corporate bonds, each with its own set of characteristics and risk profiles. They are typically issued with a face value, also known as par value, and a specified interest rate, which is referred to as the coupon rate. Bondholders receive periodic interest payments, known as coupon payments, and when the bond reaches its maturity date, they receive the bond’s face value back.

Understanding Bonds

A bond is a debt security with an investment-grade status that grants its holder the entitlement to receive its face value, also known as par value, and periodic interest payments, referred to as a coupon, from the issuer. These payments can be made either in cash or in an equivalent form of property within a specified period as outlined in the bond’s terms.

Bonds can be categorized based on their coupon structure. Some bonds offer fixed coupon yields, meaning the interest payments remain constant throughout the life of the bond. For example, you might have a bond like "Austrian Anadi Bank AG, 3.6% 2apr2022, EUR," where the coupon rate is fixed at 3.6%. Conversely, other bonds have floating coupon rates that adjust periodically, often based on financial indicators like interbank rates. An example of this is "12M EURIBOR," which can influence the coupon payments.

In the global bond market, payments under coupon securities are made at predetermined intervals. However, in cases where the interest payment coincides with the bond’s maturity date, they are referred to as "bonds with interest at maturity." For instance, "CIBC, 2.55% 21oct2024, CAD" is an example of such a bond.

There are also bonds known as discount securities, where there is no periodic coupon yield. An example is "Barclays Bank PLC, 0% 27feb2025, GBP (2192D), 01."

Bonds exhibit a wide range of variations, depending on factors like the issuer (government, municipality, corporation), maturity (short-term, medium-term, long-term, indefinite), convertibility, security, placement type, and purpose of issuance.

Investors find bonds attractive due to their relatively low risk compared to other financial instruments. This is often attributed to their predetermined market circulation period and known interest income. These features allow investors to make more accurate predictions about their investment returns, even if they plan to sell bonds before maturity.

Characteristics of Bonds

  1. Face Value (Par Value). The face value of a bond is the amount it will be worth at its maturity date. This value serves as a reference point for calculating interest payments. For instance, if an investor purchases a bond at a premium of $1,090 or at a discount for $980, both will receive the bond’s face value, which is typically $1,000, upon maturity.

  2. Coupon Rate. The coupon rate represents the interest rate that the bond issuer agrees to pay on the bond’s face value. It is expressed as a percentage. For example, a bond with a 5% coupon rate will provide bondholders with annual interest payments of 5% x $1,000 face value, which is $50.

  3. Coupon Dates. These are the specific dates on which the bond issuer makes interest payments to bondholders. While payment intervals can vary, the standard practice is to make semiannual interest payments.

  4. Maturity Date. The maturity date is the designated date on which the bond matures, and the bond issuer pays the bondholder the face value of the bond.

  5. Issue Price. The issue price is the initial price at which the bond issuer sells the bonds to investors. In many cases, bonds are initially issued at par value.

  6. Credit Quality. Credit quality is a critical factor in determining a bond’s coupon rate. Bonds with lower credit ratings, indicating a higher default risk, typically offer higher interest rates to compensate investors for the increased risk. Bonds with higher credit ratings are often referred to as "investment grade" and are considered safer investments, including those issued by the U.S. government and stable companies.

  7. Time to Maturity. The time until a bond matures is another key factor influencing its coupon rate. Longer-term bonds usually offer higher interest rates because bondholders are exposed to interest rate and inflation risks for an extended period.

  8. Credit Ratings. Credit ratings are assigned by agencies like Standard and Poor’s, Moody’s, and Fitch Ratings to assess the creditworthiness of bond issuers. The highest-quality bonds are classified as "investment grade," while bonds with lower ratings but not in default are often termed "high yield" or "junk" bonds. The latter category compensates investors with higher coupon payments due to the increased risk of future default.

  9. Interest Rate Sensitivity (Duration and Convexity). Bond prices and portfolios can fluctuate with changes in interest rates. The sensitivity of these fluctuations is referred to as "duration." It’s essential to note that duration doesn’t relate to the bond’s time to maturity but rather how its price responds to interest rate changes. The rate of change of this sensitivity is known as "convexity." Both duration and convexity are complex calculations typically performed by financial professionals.

Types of Bonds

  1. Corporate Bonds. Public and private companies issue corporate bonds to support various financial objectives such as daily operations, production expansion, research funding, or acquisitions. These bonds are subject to both state and federal income tax regulations. For instance, an example of a corporate bond is "XYZ Corporation, 4.5% 15nov2025, USD."

  2. Government Bonds. The federal government issues U.S. government bonds and are commonly referred to as treasuries since they originate from the U.S. Treasury Department. The proceeds from the sale of government bonds fund various government activities. Government bonds are subject to federal taxes but are exempt from state and local taxes. An example is "U.S. Treasury Bonds, 2.0% 15sep2030, USD."

  3. Agency Bonds. Government Sponsored Enterprises (GSEs) such as Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac issue agency bonds to secure funding for federal initiatives in areas like mortgages, education, and agriculture. These bonds are subject to federal tax, although some may be exempt from state and local taxes. An example of an agency bond is "Fannie Mae, 3.25% 10jan2027, USD."

  4. Municipal Bonds. States, cities, and counties issue municipal bonds to finance local projects and initiatives. Interest earned on municipal bonds is generally tax-free at the federal level and often at the state level as well. This tax advantage makes municipal bonds an appealing choice for high-net-worth investors and those seeking tax-free income, particularly during retirement. An example could be "City of ABC, 4.0% 30jul2030, Municipal Bond."

How Bonds Work

Bonds, often referred to as fixed-income securities, are a fundamental asset class that individuals are generally familiar with, alongside stocks (equities) and cash equivalents.

When entities, whether corporations or governments, require funds for various purposes like funding projects, sustaining ongoing operations, or refinancing debts, they may choose to issue bonds to raise capital directly from investors. In this process, the borrower, known as the issuer, issues a bond with specified terms, including the interest payments to be made and the maturity date by which the borrowed funds (bond principal) must be repaid. These interest payments, referred to as coupons, form a part of the return that bondholders receive in exchange for lending their money to the issuer. The rate dictating these payments is called the coupon rate.

Typically, most bonds are initially priced at par value, which is $1,000 per individual bond. However, the actual market price of a bond is influenced by several factors, including the issuer’s credit quality, the time remaining until the bond matures, and how the coupon rate compares to the prevailing interest rates in the market at that time. Upon maturity, the bondholder receives the face value of the bond, which is the amount repaid by the borrower.

It’s important to note that many bonds can be bought and sold by investors after their initial issuance. In other words, bond investors are not obligated to hold their bonds until the maturity date. Additionally, borrowers may choose to repurchase their bonds if interest rates decrease or if their creditworthiness improves, allowing them to reissue new bonds at a lower cost. This flexibility in trading and repurchasing bonds provides opportunities for investors to adjust their portfolios and take advantage of changing market conditions.

Issuers of Bonds

Bonds are issued by a variety of entities, including governments at all levels and corporations. These entities utilize bonds as a means to raise capital by essentially borrowing money from investors. Here’s a closer look at who issues bonds.

  1. Government Entities. Governments, at various levels (federal, state, and local), are among the most significant issuers of bonds. They issue bonds to fund a wide range of initiatives, including building and maintaining infrastructure such as roads, schools, dams, and public facilities. Governments may also issue bonds to cover unexpected expenses, such as those related to national defense or emergencies. Bonds issued by governments are often considered relatively low-risk, particularly those issued by the federal government.

  2. Corporations. Corporations, both public and private, issue bonds as a means of raising capital to support their business operations and growth. This capital may be used for diverse purposes, including purchasing property and equipment, funding research and development, expanding operations, or hiring employees. Large organizations frequently require substantial amounts of capital that may exceed the capacity of traditional bank loans. By issuing bonds, they can tap into the broader financial markets and access funds from individual and institutional investors.

Bonds serve as a crucial financial instrument that enables these entities to raise substantial amounts of money from a wide range of investors. Additionally, the bond market allows for the trading of bonds among investors, providing flexibility in managing capital and accommodating changing financial needs over time.

Bonds Rating

All bonds carry a certain degree of risk, particularly the risk of default. If a bond issuer, whether a corporation or a government, experiences financial difficulties or declares bankruptcy, there’s a possibility that they may not be able to meet their bond obligations, leaving investors at risk of not receiving their principal back.

Bond credit ratings play a crucial role in helping investors assess the default credit risk associated with their bond investments. These ratings also provide insights into the likelihood that the issuer will consistently make interest payments, known as the bond’s coupon rate.

Much like how credit bureaus assign individuals a credit score based on their financial history, credit rating agencies evaluate the financial health of bond issuers. The three most prominent credit rating agencies are Standard and Poor’s, Fitch Ratings, and Moody’s. These agencies assign ratings to individual bonds to convey the creditworthiness of the issuer and the level of security backing the bond issue.

In general, a bond’s rating has a significant impact on its characteristics:

  1. Higher Ratings, Lower Coupons. Bonds with higher credit ratings are considered lower credit risk in terms of default. Therefore, issuers of highly-rated bonds typically offer lower coupon rates to investors. This is because investors are willing to accept lower interest payments in exchange for the security of investing in a financially stable entity. For example, a government bond with a AAA rating might offer a lower coupon compared to a riskier corporate bond.

  2. Lower Ratings, Higher Coupons. Conversely, bonds with lower credit ratings are associated with a higher credit risk of default. To attract investors and compensate them for taking on this increased risk, issuers of lower-rated bonds typically offer higher coupon rates. These higher interest payments serve as an incentive to entice investors to invest in bonds with a less favorable credit profile.

Bonds Pricing

Bonds are priced in the secondary market based on their face value or par value. Bonds that trade above par value are referred to as trading at a premium, while those trading below par value are said to be trading at a discount. Bond pricing, like that of any other asset, is influenced by the forces of supply and demand. However, credit ratings and prevailing market interest rates play significant roles in determining bond prices.

Credit ratings have a substantial impact on bond pricing. As mentioned earlier, highly rated investment-grade bonds typically offer a lower coupon rate, resulting in a lower fixed interest rate for investors. Consequently, such bonds yield lower, translating to a reduced investment return. However, the interplay of supply and demand in the market can lead to fluctuations in bond prices.

For instance, even if you hold a highly rated bond, changes in market sentiment can cause it to trade at a discount to its par value. In such a scenario, the bond’s yield would increase, making it more appealing to buyers. This is because the fixed coupon rate represents a larger percentage of the lower purchase price, potentially offering a more attractive return to investors.

Market interest rates also play a crucial role in bond pricing. When market interest rates rise, bond yields tend to increase as well. This rise in yields can put downward pressure on bond prices. To illustrate, consider a scenario where a company initially issues bonds with a face value of $1,000 and a 5% coupon rate. However, a year later, market interest rates have risen, prompting the same company to issue new bonds with a 5.5% coupon rate to align with the prevailing rates.

In this situation, the demand for the existing 5% coupon bond would likely decrease, as investors can now obtain a higher yield from the new 5.5% coupon bond. To make the older bond more attractive to investors, its price in the secondary market would be adjusted downward, perhaps to $900 in this example. Investors purchasing the 5% coupon bond at this discounted price would benefit from a higher yield, making it competitive with the new 5.5% bond.

How to Invest in Bonds

  1. New Bonds. You have the option to invest in bonds during their initial offering, known as the primary market. This can be done through many online brokerage accounts that provide access to new bond issuances. When buying new bonds, you typically purchase them directly from the issuer at their face value.

  2. Secondary Market Bonds. Another way to invest in bonds is by buying them on the secondary market, where previously issued bonds are bought and sold. Many brokerage accounts offer the option to purchase bonds in the secondary market. Bond prices may fluctuate in this market based on supply and demand factors, credit ratings, and market interest rates.

  3. Bond Mutual Funds. Bond mutual funds are investment vehicles that pool money from multiple investors to purchase a diversified portfolio of bonds. These funds offer a range of strategies, including long-term bond funds, high-yield corporate bond funds, and others. Investors can buy shares in these mutual funds, providing diversification across various bonds. Bond mutual funds charge management fees, compensating portfolio managers for their expertise.

  4. Bond ETFs (Exchange-Traded Funds). Bond ETFs function similarly to bond mutual funds but are traded on stock exchanges like individual stocks. Investors can easily buy and sell shares of bond ETFs, providing liquidity and flexibility. Bond ETFs typically have lower fees compared to bond mutual funds.

When considering how to invest in bonds, there are some important points to remember:

  • Access to new issues and the secondary market may vary by brokerage, so choosing a brokerage that aligns with your investment goals is essential.

  • Bond prices in the secondary market can fluctuate, and understanding bond pricing dynamics is important for investors.

  • Bond mutual funds and ETFs offer convenience and diversification, making them accessible options for everyday investors.

  • Reviewing the investment strategy and fees associated with bond mutual funds and ETFs is advisable to ensure they align with your financial objectives.

  • Whether you decide to work with a financial professional or manage your investments independently, incorporating fixed-income investments, such as bonds, can enhance your investment portfolio’s stability and income potential.

How to Choose a Bond

  1. Assess Your Investment Goals. Begin by defining your investment objectives and risk tolerance. Consider your time horizon, income needs, and overall financial goals. Bonds can serve various purposes, including income generation and risk mitigation.

  2. Understand Yield and Relative Value. Evaluate bonds based on yield, representing the income you’ll receive from the bond. Compare yields to make relative value assessments among different bonds. Keep in mind that higher yields often come with higher risks. Assess whether the yield aligns with your income needs and risk tolerance.

  3. Analyze Bond Maturity and Features. Examine the bond’s maturity, as it significantly impacts its risk and return profile. Short-term bonds typically have lower interest rate risk but may offer lower yields, while long-term bonds may have higher yields but are more sensitive to interest rate changes. Consider the bond’s features, such as callable or convertible provisions, which can affect its behavior and suitability for your investment goals.

  4. Benchmark Rates and Perspective. Familiarize yourself with relevant benchmark rates, such as the 10-year Treasury yield. Benchmark rates provide context for assessing the attractiveness of a bond’s yield. Understand how changes in benchmark rates can impact bond prices and yields. This knowledge will help you make informed decisions based on the prevailing interest rate environment.

  5. Diversify Your Bond Portfolio. Avoid putting all your investment capital into a single bond. Diversify your bond holdings across different issuers, maturities, and sectors to spread risk and enhance portfolio stability.

  6. Stay Informed and Educated. Continuously educate yourself about the bond market, economic trends, and relevant factors that influence bond performance. Staying informed will help you make well-informed investment decisions.

  7. Seek Professional Advice if Needed. If you are uncertain about selecting bonds or creating a diversified bond portfolio, consider seeking guidance from a financial advisor or investment professional. They can help tailor your bond investments to align with your specific financial circumstances and goals.


  • Are bonds a good investment?

  • Can you gain money from bonds?

  • Is a bond a debt?

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