is the process by which investment bankers raise investment capital from investors on behalf of corporations and governments that are issuing either equity or debt securities. The word "underwriter" originally came from the practice of having each risk-taker write his name under the total amount of risk he was willing to accept at a specified premium. This centuries-old practice continues, in a way, as new issues are usually brought to market by an underwriting syndicate, in which each firm takes the responsibility, as well as the risk, of selling its specific allotment.